A Travellerspoint blog

A morning with the 'comfort women'.

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Prior to visiting Seoul in 2002, I was aware of the brutal history of Japan's 'comfort women'. The term 'comfort women', is a euphemism for the tens of thousands of girls and women, mostly Korean but from other occupied countries, who were forced into sexual slavery in front line brothels -'comfort stations' - run by the Japanese military before and during World War II.

Since the first Korean survivor Kim Hak-Sun, came forward with her story in 1991, hundreds of other women slowly started speaking out about the atrocities committed by the Japanese military. This developed into peaceful weekly demonstrations held outside the Japanese Embassy. So, I decided to go along to meet the women and show my support when I visited Seoul.

The Japanese government has never made an official apology to the women nor offered them any type of compensation. The weekly demonstration is therefore a reminder of the demands that would be recognised as an attempt at justice for the women.

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The riot police facing the peaceful vigil

When I arrived that Thursday morning, people looked surprised when I showed up. A young woman with a sheet of long, black, glossy hair, who spoke perfect English, rushed over to me with a curious look and smiled.

"Hi I'm Eun-Ae welcome! What brings you to Seoul and how did you find out about this meeting?".

I explained I was visiting my friend Carmen and that I had previously read books about the women's experiences. She was delighted I'd joined the group and asked.

"Would you like to meet some of the women?"

"I'd love to, if it's ok?", I replied.

"Oh, she said. "Some of the women who usually come along are sick, so they couldn't make it today"

"I hope they are ok", I said.

As we approached the 10 elderly women, I couldn't help notice how incredibly weary they all looked. They sat in a single row, propped up and hunched over in their chairs. Some of them sat with their eyes gazing downwards, heads bent slightly forward, behind the banner in front of them. They wore over sized yellow tabards that displayed their charities logo - The Korean Council for Justice and Remembrance (KCJR).

I looked at Eun-Ae, the concern obviously showing on my face and she explained.

"You know, even though it happened 60 or for some 70 and 80 years ago, they still feel shame and their lives have been dominated and destroyed really, by their history".

"But still every week they come here to try and get recognition for what they suffered".

What she said rang true. Because by looking at the women, it was almost like they had been at a 'comfort station' the day before. However, as I was about to find out, the passing of time on its own did not lessen the impact of such personal loss or ease the complex trauma to which they were exposed.

Eun-Ae took me over to the women, all of whom she knew well. Up close, I could see the map of wrinkles on their faces which told of sorrows past and present. She introduced me to the group and explained I was a supporter of their cause from Scotland.

It was then their expressions changed. The misery slowly lifted from their faces as they looked up and their mouths carved into a grin, as their eyes met mine. Tired eyes and blank eyes, that creased into a smile and a tear appeared in the corners.

Next, I was taken to each woman individually. One by one, they grabbed both my hands, squeezed them gently and humbly bowed their heads. We couldn't communicate verbally but I knew they appreciated my presence. I felt so touched and privileged to meet these strong women.

Eun-Ae told me that many women who returned from the 'comfort stations', either kept it a secret their whole lives or if they did reveal the truth, were ostracised by their families and communities. Having had sex outside marriage and even worse being prostitutes, was seen as having brought shame not only on themselves but to their whole family. This led to some of the women living together in shelters that were dotted all over South Korea.

I noticed one woman, she was tiny and her hair was white, like fresh snow, shyly glance over at me occasionally. It was almost as if she was contemplating speaking to me, because the next thing I was beckoned over, along with Eun-Ae to translate. She invited us to sit beside her so we could hear her voice which she reduced to a whisper.

She told me that many Korean girls were tricked into being 'comfort women'. She had been a 15 year old child when offered a job as a cook by a Japanese soldier, who appeared to be showing her kindness. Given the levels of poverty at the time in the occupied territories, she agreed so she could help her family financially.

However, not long after she was driven off, she was raped. This deception started her painful ordeal at a military brothel that lasted months before being transferred to another city far from her home, when the horrors began again.

Eun-Ae further translated, "Other women couldn't make the long journey home after the war. Or it took them many years as they were stationed abroad. It was only after Kim Hak-Sun came forward that others got the courage".

The woman continued, "We were detained next to military barracks, sometimes in walled camps. Soldiers would repeatedly rape, beat and torture us, often multiple times a day".

It was all explained in a very matter of fact manner, maybe because she had repeated the story over the years? I'm not sure. Although, this was the first opportunity she had to share her experiences with a foreigner. And although she was 82 years old, her experiences were carved deep into her memory, being unable to forget her traumatic past.

I asked if she would mind telling me what the conditions were like at the camps. First, she nodded, then lowered her hooded eyes and shook her head, as if in remembrance. She told me many of those who survived wished they had died. The survivors all suffered serious physical injuries and gynecological problems.

She explained many suffered from venereal diseases and were unable to bear children later in life. Many women were unable to marry or if they did, had to hide their 'shameful' past from their husband. Some women who became pregnant were killed or died in childbirth. There was no free time since the brothels were in operation 24/7.

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Statue in South Korea in memory of 'comfort women'.

Although we were talking quietly, the woman sitting next to us had an idea of the topic of conversation and was keen to share. She tilted the front of her sun hat back and exposed a kind face with dark circles under her eyes. Eun-Ae translated.

"She wanted to tell you that she wasn't deceived by a soldier, that the Japanese army had other ways to capture girls".

"She was at the market buying vegetables for her mother when she was abducted"

"Wow did nobody see this?" said I.

"Oh yes, it was a busy market and this happened in full public view, but the people could not do anything. They were frightened of the soldiers".

At that point the woman took out an old photo she carried in her purse. Tears flowed as she showed me the picture of her mother and herself. She had been an extremely beautiful child of 13 when she was kidnapped.

"She's telling you that she never seen her mother again. When she returned after the war, her family were gone and she doesn't know what happened to them."

"She ended up in the Philippines when the war ended. She was terrified and totally alone with a hostile group of men and she was a 13 year old innocent child who knew nobody. As the war got worse for the Japanese Army, it got worse for the women too".

Eun-Ae added, "As the Allies continued to conquer more countries the Japanese suffered a series of losses. The women were transported along with the military from island to island".

According to a report earlier this year, the number of sexual slavery survivors in South Korea has dwindled to just 17. Given their great ages these remaining women will gradually die, probably without justice being served.

In fact, it is estimated that 90% of the women forced into prostitution, did not survive the war. Those who remain still have deep wounds that have not healed and it appears a true apology and reconciliation are still out of reach, nearly a century later.

These days this would recognised as the crime of trafficking for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation. I have worked in Glasgow with trafficking survivors, women from all over the world who've had the most horrendous experiences.

Therefore, I recognise the diverse range of support services necessary to meet the holistic psychological, emotional and physical needs that survivors need to heal. It's a very lengthy process and one that needs various interventions to tackle the complex trauma these women have experienced - often over a period of years.

Whereas, the Korean women had to keep the atrocities they experienced to themselves, I really don't know how they survived all these years. They live in a society that shunned them, as opposed to one that accepted them and supported their healing.

In Asia, there is a concept called 'saving face'. It's about preserving one's reputation, credibility or dignity. Therefore, people like to put on a proper image of what looks good on the outside.

At that time, losing ones virginity outside marriage and involvement in prostitution would have been a prime example of 'losing face'- which led to survivors being shunned and ostracised. The view of Korean society is, you do what you can to avoid all potential embarrassment and the bringing of shame to yourself and others.

As I finished up my conversation with the second woman, she said something I've never forgot.

"In Korea women are compared to rags once they have been 'dropped' and 'dirtied' they will never be clean again".

And Eun-Ae agreed, even today, nearly a century later "Yes that's till the attitude".

Posted by katieshevlin62 01:29 Comments (3)

A trip to the DMZ

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"The scariest place on earth" - Former US President, Bill Clinton, during his visit to the DMZ in 1993.

The DMZ was established by the Korean Armistice Agreement to serve as a buffer zone between North Korea and South Korea. It is a border barrier that divides the Korean Peninsula roughly in half. It was created by agreement between North Korea, China and the United Nations Command in 1953.

I was a big fan of Michael Palin's travel series 'Full Circle' and remembered an episode when he visited the DMZ from South Korea. DMZ is the abbreviation for 'demilitatised zone' and it's a bit of a misnomer, as it's regarded to be the most dangerous and intense strip of land in the world.

But what sticks in my mind most of all about Palin's trip, was his visit to the Joint Security Area (JSA), often referred to as the Truce Village or Panmunjom. Whilst standing in a room where North and South Korean diplomats meet for negotiations, he reported, "Here I'm standing in South Korea". Then, as he shuffled his feet a few inches to the left, smiled "Now, I'm in North Korea". Brilliant! I wanted to visit instantly!

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That opportunity came a few years later when I visited my friend Carmen who lives in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. The year was 2002 and tours to the DMZ were still in their infancy, but she'd found a company and I booked a tour.

You can't visit the area independently, you must go with a licensed tour operator. But no worries, a whole industry dedicated to DMZ tourism has since opened up. Prices start from around Euro 30 and increase depending on what the tour offers.

In 2014, the official DMZ Peace Train started operating from Seoul directly to the DMZ. It runs from Wednesdays through to Sundays. Once arriving by train into the DMZ, you must then transfer onto a planned bus tour to fully experience and explore the many sites within this heavily restricted area.

The bus trip from Seoul took just under 2 hours. We had a friendly and comical tour guide who explained the disclaimer we were about to sign. By signing on the dotted line, all responsibility was removed from the company in the event of us getting a leg blown off or suchlike. The bus journey also provided a good opportunity to see the more rural part of the country as we passed through small villages and farms.

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The first stopping point, that I can remember, was the Dora Observatory. This is the last point before the DMZ actually begins. The observatory offers a vantage point to get a glimpse into North Korea on a clear day. Either because the photo is quite old or it was a hazy day, you can't really see the village of Kij┼Ćng-dong in the distance. Whilst the North Korean government deems the hamlet to be inhabited and complete with electricity, it's often referred to as 'Propaganda Village' in the Western media.

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Walking around the JSA and seeing soldiers from both sides of the peninsula staring each other in the face for hours and the odd American soldier swing by in army trucks, it didn't feel intimidating or dangerous in any way. I actually felt like I was on a Hollywood film set. However, the prevalence of barbed wire fencing and minefields is a clear indication that you've just entered a war zone.

Next we visited the Bridge of No Return. After the Korean war ended in 1953, some prisoners of war were given the choice to cross over the bridge or to stay on the side of their captors, hence the name.

On August 18, 1976, a US attempt to cut down a poplar tree obstructing visibility of the bridge led to a battle with North Korean forces that left Capt. Arthur Bonifas and Lt. Mark Barrett dead in what was later known as the Axe Murder Incident. The bridge is now closed and a new bridge to the north is used instead. Usually visited from the South only.

On the way back to Seoul, we stopped for some ginseng tea is a traditional little cafe and reflected on the trip. Everyone enjoyed the learning and opportunity to take some pictures and relieved that all body parts were intact.

Have any of you seen the DMZ from North Korea?

Posted by katieshevlin62 23:43 Archived in South Korea Comments (3)

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